Two basic but widely differing viewpoints: Big Bang or Special Creation
Cosmogony -- Theories of the origin of the universe.
Cosmology -- Character of the universe as an orderly system.
Cosmological Principle -- Universe is spatially homogeneous.
(Roughly the same everywhere in space). This unproven assumption has been made and accepted and then used to generate information about astrophysical processes.
Galaxy -- An aggregate of stars and other material which form an apparent isolated
unit in space, much larger than stellar clusters.
Quasar -- A quasi-stellar radio source. A small, dim source of light with a large
redshift. Often a source of x-ray and radio emissions.
Redshift -- Characteristic lines in light spectrum appear at longer (red) wavelengths.
Intrinsic Redshift -- Redshift not due to recession velocity.
History of the Big Bang
1924 Identification of Galaxies
Redshift characteristics studied (Vesto Slipher)
Brightness/redshift relationship determined (Edwin Hubble)
Einstein equations describing behavior of universe indicated instability.
Big Bang cosmology developed.
1945 Discovery of radio emission from stars, beginning of radio astronomy.
1963 Cooperation between radio and optical astronomers, quasars discovered.
1965 Discovery of 2.7 º K background radiation.
1966 Detailed study of quasars begins. (Dr. Halton Arp)
Summary of Big Bang
As the redshift phenomena was studied it was reasonable to assume that it was a Doppler effect. Backward extrapolation of calculated velocities pointed to a time of origin which gave rise to the Big Bang cosmology. The estimated time of origin was between 12 and 20 billion years ago. Results fit in well with assumptions made by geologists as to the age of the earth.
Expanding debris from the Big Bang supposedly consisted mainly of hydrogen and helium gas. Condensation of gas clouds is assumed to have resulted in formation of stars. Remains from star formation produced planets and their moons. A basic physical problem with this proposed sequence is that gas clouds disperse (Boyles Law) rather than condense.
Study of quasars began to produce other problems.
1. Calculated velocities of some quasars were greater than the speed of light.
2. Redshift appeared in discrete steps, contrary to the cosmological principle.
3. Quasar distribution is contrary to the cosmological principle.
4. Quasars appeared to be associated with low redshift galaxies.
The conclusion by Dr. Arp was that quasars are small, nearby and associated with galaxies, and they are not moving at high velocity.
Dr. Arp lost his job at Mt. Wilson observatory because he would not reject his conclusions. He is now working in Germany.
Redshift phenomena is now defined.
David Bergman of Common Sense Science, using data from Dr. Arp, has shown that redshift is a function of the magnetic field strength of a galaxy or quasar. this also explains why redshift occurs in discrete steps. Atomic resonance, which is affected by magnetic field strength, occurs in discete steps.
A revised cosmological concept would include:
Static universe with some velocity factors
Universe much smaller than calculated by Big Bang
Quasars as part of galaxie clusters
No basis for long age of the universe
Additional support for a young universe
Small number of supernova remnants
Small number of red dwarf stars
Bible Based Cosmogony
No physical space or matter. No time. Only God, as Spirit, who exists outside of time.
Details of creation and human redemption planned before time began.
Many Christians argue that God didn't tell us how he created. God revealed to us that He is the Creator, and more specifically that it was Jesus Christ (John 1:3, Col. 1:16) who "spoke" creation into existence. (Psalm 33:6,9) The sequence of events is important. When a specific phase of creation is completed it is called good.
Day 1 -- "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth."
Beginning of time.
What did God actually create on the first day? A vast empty space and the earth.
Initial condition of earth: Without form and void or empty.
Events of days 1,2 and 3 as found in Gen. 1:3-10 produced form.
Events of days 3,4,5 and 6 as found in Gen. 1:11-27 filled the void.
Beginning of form Gen. 1:3 "Let there be light." What is light? Electromagnetic energy of which visible (to humans) light is about one octave of 75 octaves. All atoms and molecules are held together by electromagnetic forces. (Lucas Model )
Beginning of all natural physical laws.
Day 2 --Firmament "..let it divide the waters ...and God called the firmament heaven(s)."
The waters above have different interpretations.
Day 3 --Dry land appears "..let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear."
Rapid action probably involved earthquakes.
Last step in providing form is called good.
Day 3 -- Beginning of the filling process "..let the earth bring forth grass...herb..fruit tree"
Preparation for living beings by providing an abundance of vegetation.
Day 4 -- Filling the heavens Sun, moon and stars (galaxies )
Timing of this event is a problem for Christians who wish to believe in long ages.
Plant life created on previous day need the energy from the sun to sustain life.
God named all the stars. (Psalm 147:4)
Heavens completed, called good
This creative act completes the cosmogony phase of the universe. All material things were spoken into existence out of nothing (ex nihilo). The cosmology (character) of the universe as well as we can know it is:
Young, about 7,000 years old
Static, not expanding or contracting.
Possibly bounded by water
Has a predicted end (2 Peter 3:10, the real big bang)
The creations of life on earth are unique creative acts. They complete the creation process.
Day 5 -- First life created. ".let the waters bring forth abundantly ... and fowl that may fly above the earth."
First life forms, fish and fowl, contary to evolution philosophy.
Day 6 -- Land animals created ".Let the earth bring forth .. cattle, and creeping things and beasts of the earth..."
Large number of varieties from the beginning
Day 6 -- Creation of man " .. God created man in His own image.."
Not full likeness of God
Man is different from animals. He has an eternal spirit.
Man (male and female) created in the beginning. Matt. 19:4
The only created beings not specifically mentioned are the angels and Lucifer. Many believe their creation was on day 1 or 2.
"The simplicity of the creation account is a stumbling block to the intellectual mind."