T W I N
C I T I E S
C R E A T I O N
S C I E N C E
A S S O C I A T I O N
METHODS OF SCIENCE
VALIDATION CRITERIA FOR COMPETING THEORIES
by Dave Bergman
Common Sense Science
The Scientific Method provides a means to select among competing models and
theories of scientists. Common Sense Science has been developed using the
following criteria as a scientific way to evaluate the various models and
theories proposed to predict the configuration and motions of bodies.
1. Predictions of the theory must be in accordance with experimental
2. All parts of the theory must be consistent. One part of a theory must
not contradict another part of the same theory.
3. Each subtheory entering into a larger theory must meet all the
validating criteria and be based on the same principles, definitions, and
4. Generality and simplicity should prevail over a multiplicity of
theories and models.
5. Contradictions disqualify any theory presented to be a description of
reality. A contradiction disguised as a "paradox" invalidates a theory or
6. The principle of unity demands consistency of scientific theory/models
over all ranges, scales, and domains.
7. The principle of causality demands explanations of effects based on
preceding causes rather than random, spontaneous events.
8. The principle of reality demands an objective, ongoing existence
independent of observation, measurement, or contemplation.
9. Truth, not success, is the goal for describing the physical universe.
10. Interpolation is more credible than extrapolation.
11. Existence of mathematical equations, propositions or theories cannot by
themselves validate a physical model or theory. Singularities in equations
should not be used to predict natural phenomena.
12. Scientific criteria are better than consensus.
13. Accuracy is more important than imagination, no matter how well a
theory or model is described.
14. Models and theories that lead to applications benefiting mankind are